Permanent Resident is literally permitted to stay in Japan with unlimited period. The following table shows the requirements that the Minister of Justice can grant Permission for Permanent Resident.
1) Duration of Stay in Japan
In principle, the person has stayed in Japan for more than 10 years consecutively. And there are some exceptions such as "Permanent Resident" or a spouse of a Japanese. Their requirement on duration of stay in Japan is shortened.
Moreover, when a biological child of a permanent resident is born in Japan, and if their parent files an application to acquire status of residence within 30 days of the child's birth, the child may acquire "Permanent Resident." This is so called "Permanent Resident by Birth."
2) Good Conduct
The person observes Japanese laws and daily living as a resident does not invite any social criticism.
3) Livelihood Skill
The person's assets or ability, etc. are assumed to continue to provide him/her with a stable base of livelihood in the future.
4) No Criminal Record
The person has been never sentenced to a fine or imprisonment. The person fulfills public duties such as tax payment.
5) Longest Period of Stay
The maximum period of stay allowed for the person with his/her current status of residence. For example, when "3 years or 1 year" is stipulated by the Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act, the person must be granted "3 years" of period of stay.
* There is one more requirement. "There is no possibility that the person could do harm from the viewpoint of protection of public health." Usually, this is not a problem. Please see the office Web site in detail.